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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Antonio Mira de Amescua (Guadix, Granada, c. Buy El ejemplo mayor de la desdicha (Spanish Edition): Read Kindle Store Reviews - ncarfinglahenti.ml
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- Antonio Mira de Amescua
- Encyclopædia Britannica/Mira de Amescua, Antonio - Wikisource, the free online library
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- Manual El ejemplo mayor de la desdicha (Spanish Edition)
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities. London: Verso.
Balzamo, Elena. Four Essays on Strindberg]. Bellos, David.
Is that a Fish in Your Ear? Translation and the Meaning of Everything.
London: Particular Books. Zwischen den Sprachen. Writing in a Stage of Siege. Paris: Seuil. Lawrence Venuti, ed. Special issue of The Translator Jerome Publishing.
Antonio Mira de Amescua
Dollerup, Cay. They also mistakenly believe that virt u e w i l l s h i e l d them from the envy of the monarch or of others, whereas i t i s t h i s power which Serves to inspire envy. Love i s an important element i n many of these plays, but i t i s subordinated to the theme of f a v o r.
Love i s also one cause of c o n f l i c t between monarch and favori t e i n the f a l l of Alvaro de Luna. In Bernardo de Cabrera and i n No hay dicha n i desdicha hasta l a muerte there i s r i v a l r y between the hero and h i s double for the same woman, In one tragedy the theme of love i s fused with that of favor. This i s La desgraciada Raquel which deals with the legend of the Jewess of Toledo. Mira i s caught between h i s humanity and h i s moral values on the one hand, and his patriotism and Catholicism on the other.
Encyclopædia Britannica/Mira de Amescua, Antonio - Wikisource, the free online library
Both plays are tragedies Of character, f o r they are studies of the way that power corrupts—both are good examples of Lord Acton's statement that "absolute power corrupts absolutely. Plays presenting the corruption of character more frequently portray women than men. Semiramis i s the archetype of the woman who in her quest f o r power loses her humanity and her femininity.
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The reason for t h i s , perhaps, i s that i t i s easier to portray symbolically a woman's degeneracy than a man's. In the Golden Age theater there i s no stigma attached to lo s s of male sexual v i r t u e , but When a woman loses hers i t i s usually a symptom of moral corruption, f o r a woman without v i r t u e i s a woman without honor and i n t e g r i t y.
In common with a l l the tr a g i c heroes, Raquel's major flaw i s her confidence i n her own powers. An edict had been made banning Jews from Toledo, and Raquel i s chosen to plead with the King to rescind t h i s new law. The scene ends with Raquel's prayer to Venus; Que tu ayudando cuando yo venciendo daremos fama y sacaremos premio. The King and Raquel both believe i n the i r own power and i n the T i g h t n e s s of t h e i r own opinions. They are both destined to have t h i s b e l i e f shattered when they meet.
The second act presents the inner struggles of both Raquel and the King. They must both reconcile t h e i r love f o r each other with t h e i r p o l i t i c a l obligations. Alfonso's advisers want'ihim to forsake Raquel because she i s a member of the proscribed race, but also because t h e i r a f f a i r i s adulterous. Love wins however, and the act ends with t h e i r mutual declarations of love. Raquel asks her lover to make her Queen. This attempt to seize power turns the court against her, whereas previously they may have cautioned Alfonso against her, but they had remained neutral.
The f a l l of Raquel i s si m i l a r to that of Alvaro de Luna, fo r Queen and co u r t i e r s unite to force the King to banish his favorite? Two short speeches from a quarrel between the King and his cour t i e r s sum up the S c y l l a and Charybdis between which a man must attempt to steerJ Alvar Gonzalez Es l a mocedad l u c i d a un caballo desbocado. Rey Y l a vejez un cansado embarazo de l a vida.
Man must balance reason with passion, and the result of one without the other is a lack of humanity. It is this lack of humanity that destroys Raquel. Her tragedy is similar to that of Alvaro de Luna for she talks of the reino as ingrato p. She uses inhuman means to achieve the removal of an inhuman act, but just as the act was tyrannous and denied human freedom, her methods deny the King's freedom of action.
Her nature is corrupted because of the hostility of the court, and the culmination of her degeneration is marked by the words 'Muera el obrar bien" p. This degeneration of character is revealed in a test which she undergoes. She is made "Queen" by Alfonso and is called upon to judge two eases in his absence.
Both her judgments reveal that she sacrifices reason to passion, and scorns virtue. Both cases are thematically linked to her own situation. In the first she frees a man who has murdered his mistress's husband, although she admits that this is unjust p. In the second case she refuses to punish a man who has abducted an old man's daughter.
Raquel's last error is to believe that she will be protected by Alfonso's love, even though he is not at court. The most moving part of the play is the ending. In the last scene, Raquel is able to find self-knowledge and she curses voluntad and ambici6n and realises thati Aquello que mucho vale mucho cuestai mucho quise y asi, es bien que mucho pague. The last of the "tragedies" Lo que le toca al Valor, is one of the most baffling plays that Mira wrote.
It presents a 1 8 8 paradox that Mira was incapable of solving.
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The Prince of Orange represents Protestantism i n i t s most grotesque and c a r i -catured formj Baltasar Gerardo represents Catholicism i n i t s most grotesque and caricatured form. Mira's presentation of t h e i r characters does not seem consistent, which increases the d i f f i c u l t y of understanding the play. In the f i r s t act, the Prince i s presented as a philanderer, but i s no worse than Alfonso i n La desgraciada Raquel who has a mistress as well as a w i f e. Later he i s seen feasting with the Kings of Denmark and Navarre and expresses h i s b e l i e f that h i s subjects should be completely free to choose t h e i r own r e l i g i o n pp.
In the second and t h i r d acts, the Prince's character changes, and the c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n i s much cruder. Baltasar Gerardo stands for repres-sion; he i s a figure out of the Leyenda negra. Baltasar Gerardo i s a pious self-deceivert La muerte nunca es asombro cuando l a causa es de Dios. In f a c t , he i s l i t t l e more than a hired murderer who hopes to gain fame and fortune byassassinating the Prince of Orange.
The Prince dies with the same b e l i e f i n Gerardo's place as the instrument of Godj 0 como a s i l a fortuna manifiesta que quien es rebelde a Dios muerte l e da su soberbia. The phrase mSs docta may also be i r o n i c a l , f o r Mira always seemed proud of the f a c t that he was doctor. The play i s a d i f f i c u l t one to assess, I t i s closer to the tragedies than the other groups, but i t i s not a tragedy because the play has no hero. The d e f i n i t i o n applies to a l l but one of the eight plays discussed i n t h i s chapter.
Lo que l e toca a l valor lacks a "protagonist who commands our earnest good w i l l. The Prince of Orange suffers a just punishment fo r being a l i b e r t i n e ; Baltasar Gerardo suffers a. The tone of the plays i s also somber. The somberness of Nardo Antonio and the p o l i t i c a l plays i s due to t h e i r subject matter: Nardo i s an outlaw who must l i v e i n constant fear of capture and execution, the other heroes are royal f a v o r i t e s who are i n constant fear of the wheel of Fortune. The heroic q u a l i t i e s of Nardo Antonio, B e l i s a r i u s , Porcellos, Bernardo, and Alvaro are attested by t h e i r martial exp l o i t s and by t h e i r virtue and popularity.
Raquel and Leander are not heroic i n the same way, but they are both presented so as to gain "our earnest good w i l l " and they are both seen to undertake heroic tasks: Leander struggles against fate; Raquel struggles f o r the freedom of the' Jews. Leander i s l i k e Prometheus and i s the only hero to suffer d i r e c t l y f o r the task that he undertakes. Nardo's punishment i s j u s t i f i a b l e , but he had been forced to commit crime by society, which then punishes him for i t s f a u l t s.
The f i v e p o l i t i c a l heroes a l l appear to be g u i l t y of t r y i n g to control the kingdom, ei t h e r through treason or through manipulation of the king. Their amount of g u i l t varies but the punishment of a l l of them f a r outweighs t h e i r crimes. They w i l l be seen to be sim i l a r to the protagonists of the other secular plays, but the l a t t e r are capable of gaining t h i s self-knowledge and using i t to overcome themselves Vencerse , thereby achieving that l a s t i n g success which always f i n a l l y s l i p s from the grasp of the tr a g i c heroes.
The ideas of E l Pinciano have been studied i n t e r a l i a by Sanford Shepard, E l Pinciano ylas, teorias l i t e r a r i a s del s i g l o de oro B i b l i o t e c a Romandbca Hispanica, Madrid, and Alfredo Hermenegildo, La tragedia en e l renacimiento espanol Barcelona, , esp.
Manual El ejemplo mayor de la desdicha (Spanish Edition)
This quotation i s discussed byG. Steiner, Death of Tragedy New York, , p. Willard R.